But did humans ever really live in caves en masse or is this just something that exists only in popular consciousness and not in reality? To begin with, when you think of cavemen, you probably picture thick browed simpletons clad in tattered furs, sitting around a fire in a cave. Both Neanderthals and modern humans built structures inside caves and at rock shelters to make the place more comfortable. They went from place to place to hunt and gather food and other supplies. So to sum up, yes, there really were so-called “cavemen”, but as we can see from the preceding examples, they did not all live in caves, or at least not all the time.